Cardinal Virtues are the fundamental virtues on which the other virtues are based. The term ‘cardinal’ is derived from the word Cardo. ‘Cardo’ means a hinge or a hook which supports the door, and on which the door turns. And you can join now also upsc prelims crash course 2022
Schopenhauer regarded benevolence and justice as cardinal virtues. The commonly recognized virtues like love, courage, kindness, temperance, honesty and gratitude can all be derived from cardinal virtues. Christianity has seven cardinal virtues, three of these – faith, hope and charity (love) are theological virtues. Four virtues – prudence, fortitude, temperance and justice – are human virtues.
Plato’s theory of cardinal virtues:
- Ancient Greek philosopher, Plato identifies four “cardinal virtues” that are necessary for a happy individual and that are necessary for a good society.
- Plato’s Cardinal Virtues: Cardinal virtues propounded by Plato are Wisdom, Courage, Temperance and Justice.
- Wisdom: Wisdom is the Virtue of the rational part of the soul. It is an all-embracing virtue. It is moral insight into the duties in a concrete situation and performing them. Practical wisdom which is implied in all moral actions. However, in a wide sense, wisdom should include care, foresight, prudence and decisiveness of choice for upsc prelims crash course 2022 .
- Courage: Courage is the virtue of the emotional part of the soul. Courage is the power of resisting the fear of pain and the temptation of pleasure. Valor is active courage, which forges ahead and braves danger and pain. Fortitude is passive courage which endures inevitable sufferings without wavering. Courage should include perseverance.
Temperance: Virtue which offers resistance to the allurements of pleasure. It is self-restraint or self-control. It denotes the will to choose the higher values and to reject the lower bodily values.
- Temperance is not merely a negative virtue engaged in repressing the appetites. It demands a reasonable moderation or a happy blending of the domination of reason with the other tendencies of human nature. Temperance is supremely a virtue which gives beauty to the moral life.
- Justice: Justice is the harmonious functioning of intellect, emotion and desire under the guidance of reason. Wisdom, courage, and temperance are primarily virtues of an individual man. however little he is able to do physically for the common good, should be provided with an artificial leg. Justice is impartiality to all in the face of personal prejudice, preference or self-interest.
They are fundamental virtues.
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